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The Series of Explaining Five Pillars of Islam

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The Series of Explaining Five Pillars of Islam
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The Series of Explaining Five Pillars of Islam
The Series of Explaining Five Pillars of Islam

Hello, to every member here
The religious practice of Islam, which literally means "to submit to God", is based on tenets that are known as the Five Pillars, arkan, to which all members of the Islamic community, Umma, should adhere.

1. The Profession of Faith—The Shahada
The First Pillar of Islam is the Shahadah, which is the assertion of Muslim faith, combining the themes of Unity and Mercy that are evident in the Quran. There are two Shahadahs: “There is no god but God” & “Muhammad is the messenger of God”. It is a set statement normally recited in Arabic: lā ʾilāha ʾillā-llāhu muḥammadun rasūlu-llāh (لَا إِلٰهَ إِلَّا الله مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ الله)

: Testimony that
.. Laa Ilaaha Illa-Allah .

This phrase has two parts: 1) “aa Ilaaha’”’: Which negates that anything or
anyone deserves to be worshipped other than Allah. 2) ‘‘Ylla-Allah”’: Which affirms
that Allah alone truly deserves to be worshipped. Allah (3) said: “And
(remember) when Ibraheem said to his father and his people: “Verily, I am
innocent of what you worship, except Him (1.e Allah alone I worship none)

Who did create me; and verily, He will guide me.” (26-27:43]

Therefore it’s not sufficient to worship Allah, rather you must worship Him
alone. The Tawheed of person is not correct except by singling out Allah in
worship and freeing one’s self from polytheism (shirk) and those who commit It.

It has been mentioned in a narration that “Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah” 1s the key to
Paradise. But does everyone who says it deserve to have the door of Paradise
opened for him?

Wahab ibn Munabbih was asked: “Isn't the statement “Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah’ the
key to Paradise? He answered: “Yes, but every key has a set of teeth. If you come
with the key that has the correct set of grooves, the door will open for you. If you
come with a key that doesn’t have the correct set of grooves, the door will not open
for you.” .

Many narrations have been reported from the Prophet (#s) which explain the
correct grooves which it must have. For instance he (sey) said: “Whoever says
‘Laa Iaaha Ill-Allah’ sincerely” and he also said “with certainty in his heart” and
he also said “truthfully from his heart” and so on. These narrations clarify that in
order for this key to open the gates of Paradise, *Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah’ must be said
with submission to what its meaning entails, remaining firmly upon it throughout
one's life and with other characteristics.

Based on evidence from the Qur’an and the Sunnah, the scholars of Islam have
concluded that certain conditions must be fulfilled, and certain factors must not be
present for this phrase to serve as the key to Paradise and to benefit the person who
utters it.

These conditions are as follows:

@ Knowledge: its opposite being ignorance. Since every statement has a
meaning, one must know the meaning of Laa Ilaaha IIl-Allah. The meaning of this
phrase is that one rejects that anything or anyone else deserves worship, affirming it
for Allah alone. Thus this phrase means ‘none deserves worship except Allah. The
proof that one must know the meaning is the saying of Allah (8%) “...except him
who bears witness unto the truth and they know it.” [43:86]

Also, the Prophet (gee) said: “Whoever dies knowing that none has the right
to be worshipped except Allah (Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah) will enter paradise.” (Muslim)
@ Certainty [the opposite of which is doubt]: Certainty is to believe that none
has the right to be worshipped except Allah (Laa Ilaaha Ill-Allah) with surety,
having no doubt whatsoever. Allah (8%) said describing the true believers: “The
(true) believers are only those who believe in Allah and His Messenger then do

not doubt, and struggle for the sake of Allah with their possessions and their
selves...” [49:15]

It is not enough that a person merely utters this phrase, but he must have absolute
certainty about its meaning, or it is pure hypocrisy. The Prophet (#2) said: “I bear
witness that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah (Laa Iaaha IIl-
Allah) and that I am His Messenger. None meet Allah with these two [testimonies],
having no doubt about them, except that they will enter paradise.” (Muslim).

3) Acceptance: If you have knowledge of the meaning of this phrase and you are
certain about it, then this should have an effect on a person: that one accepts what
this phrase necessitates with their heart and tongue [by accepting Islam]. Whoever
rejects the call of Tawheed and does not accept it, then he 1s a disbeliever, whether
that rejection be due to arrogance, stubbornness or jealousy. Allah (3%) mentioned
about the disbelievers who rejected Tawheed due to arrogance: “For when it was
said unto them, ‘none has the right to be worshipped except Allah’ (‘Laa Ilaaha
ill-Allah’) they would puff themselves up with pride [and denied it]. And they
said: ‘What! Shall we forsake our gods for a crazy poet?’”’ (37:35-36]
Q Compliance: to Jawheed completely. This is the real test and outward proof of
belief. It is to abide by what Allah legislated and abstain from what He prohibited.
Allah (&%) said: “Whoever submits his whole self to Allah and is a doer of good
has indeed grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold...”’ (31:22). This is the absolute
© Truthfulness: the opposite of which is lying. This is to say the testimony
truthfully, since if one utters it without being truthful, he is a hypocrite. The proof
of this is in the saying of Allah (3Cool: “....they say with their tongues what ts not in
their hearts...” [48:11]
@ Love: The believer must love this phrase, what it necessitates, and also those
who act according to it. The sign of this love is to prefer what Allah loves even
though it may be against his desires. He loves those who love Allah and His
Messenger, and he hates the enemies of Allah and His Messenger. He follows in the
Messenger's (gs) footsteps and accepts his guidance.
@ Purity of Intention: This means to only say this statement seeking the face of
Allah and His pleasure, As Allah (3%) said: “And they were not commanded except
that they should worship Allah being sincere in their religion for Him and
worshipping none except Him Alone, and establish prayer and give charity and
that ts the right (straight) religion.” [98:5]

The Prophet ( se) also said: “Allah has forbidden the Hell-fire for anyone
who says ‘none has the right to be worshipped except Allah (Laa Ilaaha IIl-
Allah)’, desiring the face (and pleasure) of Allah.”’ (A\-Bukhari and Muslim)

| Testimony that Muhammad |
_ (4) is the Messenger of Allah

In the grave. the deceased will be tested with three questions. If they answer
them correctly, they will be saved, and if not, they are doomed. One of these
questions is ‘Who is your Prophet ( eyo! No one will be able to answer
correctly except those who have fulfilled the conditions of this testimony, and
those who Allah inspires with the answers and bestows upon him firmness in the
face of this severe test.

These are the people who will benefit on that day when one’s money or
relatives will be of no avail. The conditions of the testimony of ‘Muhammad
(sy) is the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad-ur-Rasool-ullah) are as follows:
@ Obedience to what the Prophet ( se) commanded, as Allah commands us
to obey him : “Whoever obeys the Messenger, has obeyed Allah.” [4:80|

Allah (8%) also said: “Say if you love Allah, then follow me: Allah will love you
and forgive your sins. Verily Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” (3:31)

In addition to this, entering Paradise is conditional upon obedience to the
Prophet ( gy) as he said: “All of my community of followers will enter Paradise
except for those that refuse.” They said: “O Messenger of Allah and who
refuses?” He said: “Those that obey me will enter Paradise and those that disobey
me refuse”? (al-Bukhari) . .

Those that truly love the Prophet (fs) must obey him, since obedience is the
natural outcome of love. Those who claim to love the Prophet ( ge) and do not
follow and obey him are not true to their claim.

@ Belief in all what the Prophet (fs) informed us. Whoever believes anything
which has been authentically confirmed to be of his statements as false out of desire
has given lie to Allah and His Messenger (fs). The Messenger (fs) was protected
from erring in religion, as Allah (&%) said : “He doesn’t speak from his own
inclination. It is indeed a revelation revealed (to him from Allah).” [53:3-4]

© Avoiding everything he prohibited and reproached. The first and foremost
thing that must be avoided is shirk, then the major sins, ending with the lesser sins
as well as those things that are makrooh (disliked). The more the believer loves the
Prophet (gs), the more his faith increases. When a believer’s faith increases, Allah
places within him the love to perform good deeds and the hate of disbelief,
wickedness and disobedience.

Q Not worshipping Allah except by what has been legislated by His Prophet
(gs). This issue is critical, for it is not allowed to worship Allah by any act except
what has been shown by His Messenger (#2), as he said: “Whoever innovates an
act of worship in our religion, that thing ts rejected” (Muslim)

Thus, all types of unprecedented worship is not acceptable to Allah.

' The other two are: “Who is your God?” and “What is your religion?”

Note: Be certain that loving the Prophet (ity) is an obligation. Rather, it is not
enough that one merely love him; one should love him more than everything else,
even his own self. If someone loves something, they prefer it over theirself and
strive to be in agreement with it. Thus, the one who truly loves the Prophet (hy) iS
the one upon whom this love can be seen. He obeys him, implements his Sunnah,
implements his commands and imitates his deeds. He stays clear from what he
forbids, tries to behave like him both in times of ease and hardship, and in times
when he feels motivated to practice Islam and otherwise. Obedience is the fruit of
love, and without it, love can never be true. |

There are signs which show that one loves the Prophet ( ge), From them
are the following :

1) Mentioning him a lot and sending praises upon him. If one loves something he
mentions it often.

2) Longing to meet him. Anyone who loves another longs to meet his beloved.

3) Respecting him when he is mentioned. Ishaq said: The Companions of the
Prophet ( sy) would not mention him after his death except that they would fall
still, the hairs of their skin would stand, and they would weep.

4) Hating those who Allah and His Messenger (is) hate, and showing enmity to
those who show enmity to them. One also should stay away from those who oppose
his Sunnah and introduce new matters in his religion, such as the people of
innovation (bid’ah). .

5) Loving those who the Prophet (is) loved, such as the believing members of his
family, his wives, and his companions from the Emigrants (Muhajiroon) and the
Helpers (Ansar), One should hate those who hate them, take as enemies those who
show enmity to them and curse them. .

From the signs that one loves the Prophet (ge) is that one emulates his noble
manners and qualities. The Prophet (gy) was the most noble of humans in
manners. Aishah ( “%.) said of him, “The manners of the Prophet (gy) were that
of the Quran,” (Muslim) meaning that he kept himself from committing any act which
the Quran did not command. He was the bravest of people, and he would be most
brave at times of battle. He was the most generous of people, and he would be most
generous in Ramadan. He was the most sincere towards others and the most
forbearing of people. He never sought revenge for himself, but at the same time, he
was the strictest of people in regards to the commandments of Allah. He was the
most humble of people and tranquil. He was shyer than a secluded virgin. He was
the best of people to his family, and the most merciful of people towards the
creation, and encouraged others to have mercy as well.

O Allah! Send your praises upon him, his family, his wives, his companions and
those who followed them in righteousness until the Day of Resurrection, and
remove them from all harm.

2. Daily Prayers—Salat
Muslims perform five prayers a day. Each prayer does not take more than a few minutes to perform. Prayer in Islam is a direct link between the worshipper and God. There are no intermediaries between God and the worshipper.
In prayer, a person feels inner happiness, peace, and comfort, and that God is pleased with him or her. The Prophet Muhammad said: {Bilal, call (the people) to prayer, let us be comforted by it.}2 Bilal was one of Muhammad’s companions who was charged to call the people to prayers.
Prayers are performed at dawn, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, and night. A Muslim may pray almost anywhere, such as in fields, offices, factories, or universities.

The Prayer (Salah)

Call to Congregational Prayer (Adhan) and Announcement of the Beginning of
Prayer (Igamah)

Both the Adhan and the Igamah are community obligations (Fard Kifaayah) for
men who are not travelling (in a state of residence), while they are Sunnah for one
praying alone and travelers. As for women, they are disliked (Makrooh).

Neither the Adhan nor the [gamah are allowed to be made before their times,
except for the Adhan of the Dawn Prayer (Fajr), for which the first of the two’ is
allowed to be called any time after the middle of the night.

The Prerequisites (Shuroot) for the Prayer: 1) Islam. 2) Sanity (Aql).
3)Discretion. 4) Cleanliness from filth according to one’s ability. 5) The entrance of
the time of prayer. The times are as follows: The time of Zuhr (Noon) prayer begins
when the sun starts its decline after its zenith in the sky until the shade of anything is
equal to its length. The time of Asr (Afternoon) prayer begins from the time Zuhr
ends until the shadow of an object is double its own length; this is what is preferred,
but due to need it can be extended until the sun sets. The time of Maghrib (Sunset)
prayer starts after the setting of the sun until the disappearance of redness or
twilight of the sky. The time of Isha (Night) prayer is up until the middle of the
night”, and can continue up until the time of the dawn if necessary.The time of Fajr
(Dawn) prayer begins at dawn’, until the sun rises. 6) Covering the private areas
according to one’s ability with something opaque. The extent of the private area for
a male who has reached the age of 10 years or older is from his navel to the knee,
and for a woman who has reached puberty is her entire body except her face in
prayer. 7) Absence of impurities on the body, clothes and the place of prayer
according to the best of one’s ability. Cool Facing the Prayer Direction (Qiblah)
according to one’s ability. 9) Intention (Niyyah).

The Essential Elements, or Pillars (Arkaan)* of Prayer: 1) Standing (Qiyaam) in
prayer for those who are able; 2) Saying Allahu Akbar (Takbeerat-al-Ihraam) for
commencement of the prayer. This statement makes all other words and actions not
related to the prayer prohibited. 3) Reciting Surah-al-Fatihah. 4) Bowing (Rukoo’).
5) Standing after Rukoo’'. 6) Straightening up fully after Rukoo'. 7) Prostrations
(Sujood, sing, Sajdah) on the seven parts of the body (two feet, two knees, two
palms of hands, and the head which includes the forehead with the nose). Cool Sitting
up after the prostraton and sitting between the two Sajdahs. 9) Saying the last
testimony (Tashahhud). 10) Sitting for the last Tashahhud. 11) Saying prayers for
the Prophet ( ste) in the last sitting. 12) Ending the Prayer with saying “As-Salaam
Alaikum wa Rahmatullah” (Tasleem). 13) To perform each of these pillars properly,
in that one settles fully into their positions. 14) Performing all these pillars in the
' There are two adhaans for the Fajr prayer, one for tahajjud (the voluntary night prayer) and one for Fajr.
° Note that the middle of the night is not 12:00 a.m., but rather half the time between Maghrib and Fajr.
* The first appearance of light in the sky.
* What is meant by pillars here are those actions which, if left, must be madeup for, or else the prayer
is rendered invalid.

order mentioned above. 3 3

The prayer 1s not regarded as valid except if these pillars are performed. If
someone misses any of them in one unit (Rak’ah) of the prayer, that unit 1s void,
whether it is left intentionally or forgetfully.

The Obligatory Acts (Wajibaat)' of Prayer: 1) All of the Takbeeraat (saying
“Allahu Akbar” *), apart from Takbeerat-ul-Ihram. 2) Saying “Sami'a Allahu lIman
Hamidah” °, after standing from rukoo' by the Imam in a congregational prayer and
by the individual if not in a congregation. 3) Saying “Rabbana wa lakal-Hamd’ *
after standing from rukoo'. 4) Saying “Subhiiaana Rabbiyal-Azeem” ° once in the
bowing. 5) Saying “Subhaana Rabbiyal-A'laa” ° once in the prostration. 6)Saying
“Rabbi ighfir li” ’ between the two sajdahs. 7) The first Tashahhud. Cool To sit for
the first Tashahhud.

Whoever leaves any one of these eight obligations of sayings or actions
intentionally, his prayer 1s void. If he leaves anything of them due to forgetfulness,
he should make the two prostrations of forgetfulness.

The Praiseworthy Acts (Sunan) of Prayer: They are of two types: sayings and
actions. Not performing the Sunan acts of prayer does not invalidate the prayer,
even if left intentionally.

The Sunan of sayings include the following: * reciting the opening supplication;
* seeking refuge from Satan (al-Isti’adhah); * beginning the recitation of the
Qur’an with the name of Allah (Basmalah); * saying “Ameen” at the end of Surah-
al-Fatihah aloud in prayers in which the recitation is audible; # reciting some verses
from the Qur’an after the Fatihah; * the Imam reciting aloud (the followers or
ma’moom are prohibited to recite aloud. while a person offering his prayer
individually is free to choose); # saying “Hamdan Katheeran Tayyiban Mubarakan
fihi Mil-'as-Samaawaati wa Mil’al-Ardi...” after saying “Rabbanaa wa-lakal-Hamd’;
* saying “Subhaana Rabbiyal-Azeem’, “Subhaana Rabbiyal-A'laa” and “Rabbi
ighfir Il’ more than once in bowings, prostrations and the sittings; # saying a
supplication before the final saying of ““As-Salam alaikaum wa Rahmatullah.”

The Sunan of actions include the following: * raising the hands at the time of
Takbeerat-al-Ihram, at the time of bending for the rukoo’, at the time of raising up
from it to a standing position, and at the time of standing up from the first at-
Tashahhud; * placing the right hand on the left below the chest while standing; *
keeping the eyes on the spot of prostration; keeping the feet separated while
standing; # placing the knees on the ground first, then the hands and the forehead

when going down for prostration; # keeping the stomach separated from the thighs,
and separating the thighs from the calves in prostration; * keeping a distance
between the knees while bowing; #* keeping both the heels propped up while toes
firmly placed on the ground with some distance between them and pointing [the toes]
towards the Qiblah in prostration; * placing the hands with the fingers together on
the ground at the level of the shoulders while prostrating; #* standing up by putting
the pressure on the feet first and then relying on the knees with the hands when
standing; * propping up the right foot and spreading the left while sitting on the left
thigh in the sitting for the first Tashahhud (see the chart at the end of this book for
two ways of sitting which is called /ftiraash); * sitting on the buttocks keeping the
left foot spread under the right leg and right foot propped up in the second at-
Tashahhud (see chart for three ways of sitting which is called Tawarruk); *
spreading the hands on the thighs with fingers joined together pointing towards the
Qiblah between the two prostrations; # making a circle with the middle finger and
thumb of the right hand, and pointing the index finger during the remembrance of
Allah and supplication, symbolizing the Oneness of Allah (@&); ¥# turning to the
right and then left when making the final salutations (Tasleem).

Prostrations of Forgetfulness: It is from the Sunnah to make [two] prostrations
of forgetfulness if one mistakenly recites something in a place where they should
not, such as reciting the Qur’an in prostration. It is permissible to prostrate for
leaving a Sunnah act of the prayer. However, it is an obligation (Wajib) to make the
prostrations of forgetfulness if one adds a bowing, prostration, standing, sitting or
gives salutations before the end of the prayer, or makes a clear mistake in the
recitation of the Qur’an which changes its meaning, if one leaves any obligatory act,
or if one is doubtful about an addition at the time of adding it.

The prayer becomes invalid if one intentionally leaves off making the obligatory
prostrations of forgetfulness. A person may make these two prostrations before or
after the final salutations. However, if one forgets to make the prostrations of
forgetfulness until quite a while later after the completion of the prayer, then it is no
longer necessary.

The Description of the Prayer:

# One begins by facing the prayer direction (Qiblah) saying “‘Allahu Akbar’.

# The Imam (leader) says all the Takbeeraat (saying “Allahu Akbar”) aloud so that
those following may hear him, while the followers say them quietly.

# He raises his hands at the beginning of the Takbeer near to his shoulders, and
then he places his hands below his chest with his right hand on top of the left.

# He keeps his eyes at the place of his prostration and says an opening
supplication which has been reliably reported in an authentic narration. For
example, he may say, “Subhaanak Allahumma wa bi Hamdika wa
Tabaarakasmuka wa Ta’alaa Jadduka wa la tlaaha ghairuk”’

‘You are Glorified O Allah, and Praised; Your Name is Blessed; Your
Majesty is Exalted, and none has the right to be worshipped but You.”

Ve ro
# Then he says “A’udhu billahi min-ash-Shaitan-ir-Rajeem” (I seek refuge in
Allah from the accursed Satan). Then he says “‘Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Raheem”’
(In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent in Mercy, Most Merciful).
* All of this is stated quietly, and then he recites Surah al-Fatihah aloud if he is
the Imam in a prayer in which is read aloud. It 1s recommended that the followers
recite Surah al-Fatihah in the times of quietness of the Imam if the prayer is one
which is read aloud, and obligatory if the prayer is one which 1s read quietly, 1.e.,
Zuhr and Asr.
# Then he reads whatever else he wishes from the Qur’an. It is better to make his
recitation of the Fajr prayer with the “Mufassal” chapters, of the “shorter” chapters in
the Maghrib prayer, and in the rest of the prayers from the “medium” chapters. The
longer Mufassal chapters are from Surah Qaaf [50] to Surah an-Naba’ [78], the latter
to ad-Duha [93] are known as the “medium’’, and “shorter” from there to Surah an-
Nas [114]. The Imam recites aloud in the Fajr prayer and in the first two rak‘ahs of
the Maghrib and Isha prayers. All other prayers are to be recited silently.
* Then he raises his hands as he did in Takbeerat-al-Ihram and says “Allahu
Akbar” and then bows. He puts his hands firmly on his knees while spreading his
fingers and straightens his back such that the head is equal with his mid-section,
neither higher nor lower. Then he says, “Subhaana Rabbiyal-Azeem”’ (Glory be to
Allah, the Great) three times.
# Then he raises his head saying, “Sami’Allahu liman Hamidah ” (Allah answers
he who praises Him). Then he raises his hands as he raised before bowing to a
standing posture and says “‘Rabbanaa wa-lakal-Hamd ” (O Our Lord, to You is
praise) adding to it, ‘““Hamdan Katheeran Tayyiban Mubaarakan fihi Mil‘-as-
Samaawaati wa Mil‘-al-Ard wa Mil‘a ma Shi’ta min Shay’in ba’d ”’ (Many praises
that are pure and blessed, the fullness of the heavens, the fullness of the earth,
and the fullness of whatever You wish afterwards).
# Then he prostrates while saying “Allahu Akbar’’. He keeps his stomach away
from his thighs and thighs from his calves while prostrating on his forehead and
nose, both palms of the hands, both knees, and toes of both feet, with the fingers
and toes pointing towards the Qiblah; and he says three times in the prostration
“Subhaana Rabbiyal-A’laa”’ (Glory be to Allah, the Exalted). He can say that
several times or he can supplicate whatever he wills.
# Then he raises his head saying, “Allahu Akbar’’ sitting on his left thigh while
propping the right foot with the heel up and the toes planted to the ground facing the
Qiblah. Then he says “‘Rabbighfir-li, warhamni, wajburni, warfa‘ni, warzuqni,
wansurni, wahdini, wa-’afini’” (O Allah forgive me, and have mercy on me, and
strengthen me, and raise my rank, and give me sustenance, and give me victory,
and guide me, and pardon me).
*# Then he prostrates as the previous prostration and raises his head saying,
*‘Allahu Akbar’ and stands up repeating the second Rak’ah as the first.

' # Then he sits in the state of /ftirash for the first testimony (at-Tashahhud al-
Awwal), putting his right hand on his right thigh and left hand on his left thigh and
making a fist of his right hand while making a circle with the thumb and middle
finger and pointing with his middle finger says ‘“‘At-Tahiyyaatu lillahi was-
Salawaatu wat-Tayyibaat, as-Salaamu alaika ayyuhan-Nabiu wa Rahmatullahi
wa barakatuh, asalamu alaina wa ala Ibadillahis-Saaliheen. Ash-hadu allaa
Wlaaha illallahu wa Ash-hadu anna Muhammadan Abduhu wa Rasuluh’” (The
best of salutations and greetings are for Allah, and prayers and everything
pure and good. May the peace, mercy and blessings of Allah be on you, O
Prophet. May the peace be upon us and on the righteous slaves of Allah. I
testify that there is none that has the right to be worshipped except Allah and I
testify that Muhammad is His Slave and Messenger).

*# Then he stands and prays the third and fourth Rak’ah, making them shorter than

the first two. He recites in them Surah-al-Fatihah only and sits in the state of

Tawarruk for the last testimony (at-Tashahhud al-Akheer) and says the same as in

the first and adds to it, “‘Allahumma salli ala Muhammad wa ala Aali Muhammad

kama sallaita ala Ibraaheem wa ala Aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedum Majeed,
wa Baarik ala Muhammad wa ala Aali Muhammad kama baarakta ala

Ibraaheem wa ala Aali Ibraaheem, innaka Hameedum Majeed ” (O Allah, send

prayers upon Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad, just as You sent prayers

upon Abraham and upon the followers of Abraham. Verily, You are full of praise
and majesty. And send blessings upon Mohammad and upon the family of

Muhammad, just as You sent blessings upon Abraham and upon the followers of

Abraham. Verily, You are full of praise and majesty).

It is from the Sunnah to say “Allahumma Inni A’udhu bika min adhaabi
Jahannam, wa min adhaabil-Qabr, wa min fitnatal-Mahya wal-Mamaat, wa min
fitnat almaseeh ad-Dayal ”’ (O Allah I seek refuge in You from the punishment
of Hellfire, and from the punishment of the Grave, and from the trial of life
and death, and from the trial of the Dajjal (Antichrist) . He then may also say
other supplications as mentioned in the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

# Then he says “As-Salaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullah’ (Peace and the Mercy

of Allah be upon you) turning his head to his right and then saying the same,

turning his head to his left. .

It is the Sunnah of the Prophet ( sty) to say some of the supplications after the
completion of the prayer as mentioned in the Hadith.

' Some of these are as follows: One says, “Astaghfirullah” [I ask for Allah’s forgiveness] three
times, and then says, “A/laahumma innaka antas-Salaam wa minkas-Salaam Tabaarakta ya Dhal-
Jalaali wal-Ikraam” (O Allah You are the Peace, and from You is Peace, You are Blessed, O One
of Majesty and Generosity). One also says, “LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH, wahdahu la shareeka lah,
lahul-mulku walahul-hamd, wa huwa ’ala kulli shaiyin qadeer. La hawla wa la quwwata illa
billah, LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH wala na’abudu illa tyyah, lahun-ni’matu walahul-fadl wa
lahuth-thana-ul-hasan, LA ILAAHA ILLALLAH mukhliseena lahud-deen wa lauw karihal-

The Prayer of the One Who is Ill: ¥# If standing increases one’s illness or if a
person is unable to stand, he should pray sitting. [f one is not able to pray sitting, he
should pray while lying down on his side. If one is not able to pray lying down on his
side, he should pray on his back. #* If one is not able to perform the bowing and
prostration, he should signal [with his body] to symbolize them. # If one misses any
of his prayers, he should make them up belatedly. # If one is not able to make each
prayer in its time, he may combine the Zuhr and the Asr prayers together, and the
Maghrib and the Isha prayers together in either of their respective times.

The Prayer of the Traveler: # If the distance of the journey is more than
around eighty kilometers, and it is a lawful journey, the person may shorten the
Zuhr, the Asr and the Isha prayers from four Rak’ah to two. * If the person
intends to stay at his destination for more than four days — 20 obligatory prayers —
he should perform them in their full forms and not shorten them. # One should
perform the prayers fully when praying behind an Imam who is resident. # If one
remembers a prayer in his journey that he had forgotten as a resident or vice-
versa, he should pray it in its complete form. # The traveler may perform the
prayers in their complete form if he wishes, yet to shorten them is better.

The Friday Prayer (Salat-ul-Jumu’ah): This prayer is better than the Zuhr. It
is an independent prayer and not a shortened form of Zuhr. It is not allowed to
perform it with four Rak’ahs, to make it with the intention of Zuhr, or to combine it
with the Asr prayer, even if there may be a valid reason for that.

The Odd-numbered Prayer (Salat-ul-Witr): # This prayer is a Sunnah and it
is to be made after Isha until the time of Fajr. # The least number of Rak’ahs for
the Witr prayer is one Rak’ah, and the most number of Rak’ahs one may pray 1s
eleven. # It is better to make the salutation after every two Rak’ahs. ¥*The least


complete form of Witr prayer is to perform it in three Rak’ahs with two salutations
[meaning performing two Rak’ahs and making the salutations and then one Rak’ahs
by itself with another salutation at the end of it]. # It is Sunnah to recite Surat-ul-
A’la [87]in the first Rak’ah, Surat-ul-Kaafiroon [109] in the second and Surat-ul-
Ikhlaas [112] in the third Rak’ah. # It is recommended that you make Quncot after
bowing (rukoo’), by raising your hands and supplicating aloud even if you are
praying alone.

Funerals (Janaazah): # Washing the deceased Muslim’s body, placing the
shroud upon him, making the funeral prayer, carrying him and placing him in the
grave are all community obligations (Fard Kifaayah). ¥% Martyrs in Islamic Jihad
are not to be washed or placed in the shroud, but rather should be buried as they
died and it is allowed to pray the funeral prayer upon them. # The shroud of the
Muslim male contains three sheets while the female’s shroud should be of five
sheets: a loincloth, head covering, upper wrap and two over-all wraps. # The
Sunnah is for the Imam or a person praying alone to stand at the chest of the male
and the middle of the female. # One stands and says “Allahu Akbar” four times,
raising his hands every time: in the first he says ‘‘Allahu Akbar’ and seeks refuge
in Allah, says “Bismillah” and reads only al-Fatihah silently; in the second he says
‘“Allahu Akbar’ and reads the salutations on the Prophet (3); in the third he says
‘‘Allahu Akbar’ and supplicates to Allah for the deceased; in the fourth he says
*Allahu Akbar’ and then stands a bit and then says “as-Salaamu alaikum’.

*# It is not allowed to raise the grave above the level of the ground except a hand
span, to put any type of plaster on it, to kiss it, to place incense near it, to write on
it, to sit or walk on it, to place any kind of illumination on it, to circumambulate
around it, to build a mosque on it, or to place a grave in a mosque. Moreover any
tombs (or buildings) built over a grave must be demolished.

*# There are no restrictions about the words of solace and condolences for the grieving
relatives. A person may say, “‘A’dham Allahu Ajrak wa Ahsan Aza‘ak wa Ghafara li
Maitak’”’ (May Allah increase your reward and bestow goodness to you in your
grief and forgive your deceased). He may say when consoling a Muslim who has lost
a relative who was a disbeliever, “‘Adham Allah Ajrak wa Ahsan Aza ‘ak’? (May Allah
increase your reward and bestow goodness to you in your grief).

*# It is obligatory for a person who knows that his family will wail over him upon
his death to write a will advising them not to do so; otherwise, he may be punished
by their wailing on him.

*% Imam Shaafi’i, ~ said that it is disliked that one sits for the condolences,
referring to the gatherings in which the family of the deceased waits for those who
desire to visit them for condolences. Instead, they all should go about their business,
whether men or women.

* It is from the Sunnah to prepare food for the grieving family (since they are
preoccupied by their grief) and it is disliked to eat of their food or to prepare food
for the people who gather at their place.

# It is from the Sunnah to visit the graves as long as it does not entail travelling. It
is also allowed to visit the grave of a non-muslim. A non-muslim should not be
prohibited from visiting the grave of a Muslim.

* It is from the Sunnah to say when entering the graveyard of Muslims:
‘“Assalamu alaykum ahlad-diyari min-al-mu‘mineena, wa-inna in sha‘Allahu
bikum lalahiqoon, yarhamullah al-mustaqdimeena minna wal-musta‘khireen,
nas‘alAllaha lana walakum-ul-aafiyah, Allahumma laa tahrimna ajrahum, wa
laa taftinna ba’dahum, waghfir lana wa lahum’” (Peace be upon you all, O
inhabitants of the graves, from among the believers and the Muslims. Verily we
will, Allah willing, be united with you. May Allah forgive those of you that
proceeded and those that will come afterwards. We ask Allah for us and you
well being. O Allah do not deprive us of the reward and do not tempt us after
them, and forgive us and them).

The Prayer of the Two Eids (Eid al-Fitr, Eid-al-Ad-ha) : * This prayer is a
community obligation (Fard Kifaayah) and the time for it is after the sunrise like the
time of Salat ud-Dhuha. If people do not come to know that the day of Eid has come
until after noon, it should be made the following day as a make up prayer. # The
conditions are like the conditions of Salat ul-Jumu’ah except for the two sermons; the
two sermons of Jumu’ah are delivered before the prayer while the two sermons of Eid
are delivered after the prayer. # It is disliked that one makes any supererogatory
prayer before or after it in the place where it is performed. * This prayer has two
Rak’ahs. In the first bowing (Rak’ah), one says Takbeerat al-ihraam, ‘‘Allahu
Akbar,’ to commence the prayer and then says *‘Allahu Akbar’ six times again before
seeking refuge in Allah and reciting the Qur’an. In the second Rak’ah one says
‘“Allahu Akbar” five times before reciting the Qur’an. One raises the hands for each
Takbeer. Then the Imam seeks refuge in Allah and recites aloud al-Fatihah followed
by Surah Sabbih [87] in the first Rak’ah and by al-Ghaashiyyah [88] in the second
Rak’ah. The Imam then delivers two sermons like in the Friday Prayer, except that he
should repeat often Allahu Akbar. *# If one makes this prayer like a supererogatory
prayer, it is acceptable and correct since the Takbeeraat are additional and praising
Allah and sending salutations on the Prophet (#4) between them are Sunnah.

Prayer of Eclipse (Salat ul-Kusoof or Khusoof): ** This is a Sunnah prayer,
and its time is from the beginning of the eclipse, whether lunar or solar, until it
finishes. # It is not to be made belatedly if the eclipse is over. The way in which it
is done is to pray two Rak’ahs in which the Qur’an is recited aloud. # In the first
Rak’ah, one should recite al-Faatihah and a long surah, then do a long bowing
(rukoo’), then raise one’s head and say, “Sami’a Allahu IIman hamidah, Rabbanaa
wa laka’l-hamd’ (Allah listens to the one who praises Him; our Lord to You be
praise)” after standing upright, as in other prayers. # After that he does not go into
prostration like in other prayers. Instead, he should then recite al-Faatihah again
and another long surah. Then comes another long bow (rukoo’). After that, one
raises his head and stands upright. # Then he should do two lengthy prostrations
(sujoods). # Then one should pray the second rak’ah like the first. # Then he


should recite the Tashahhud and say the salaam. * If a person comes late missing
the first bowing (Rak’ah), he has missed that Rak’ah and will have to make it up.

Prayer for Rain (Salat-ul-Istisqa’a) : It is Sunnah to pray it in case there is a
drought or lack of rain. The manner of performing this prayer is like Salat-ul-Eid
except that one makes the sermon after the prayer.

The Sunnah is to reverse one’s cloak as an indication of optimism for a change
of circumstances once the prayer is over. |

Supererogatory prayers: It is confirmed that the Prophet (#2) would make
twelve Rak’ahs of supererogatory prayers regularly (Sunan ar-Ratibah) every day.
They are as follows: two before Salat-ul-Fajr; four before Salat-ud-Dhuhr and two
after it; two after Salat-ul-Maghrib; two after Salat-ul-Isha.

It is also authentically reported that he would make other voluntary prayers like
four Rak’ahs before Salat-ud-Duhr and Salat-ul-Asr; four after Salat-ud-Duhr
and two after the call to prayer (Adhan) of Salat-ul-Maghrib.

Prohibited times for prayer: It 1s prohibited to make voluntary prayers in the times
that have been specifically prohibited. These are: 1) After the dawn until the rising of
the sun and its appearance above the horizon to the height of a short spear; 2)At the
time of the zenith of the sun, until it starts declining; 3) After Syalat-ul-Asyr until the
setting of the sun. The prayers that are made for certain causes are permissible if made
in these times, like the prayer after entering the Mosque (Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid), the two
Rak’ ah after Tyawaaf, the Sunnah prayer of Fajr, the funeral prayer, the two Rak’ ah of
Wudoo, the prostration of recitation and the prostration of thankfulness.

Rulings concerning the Mosque (Masjid): It is obligatory to build Mosques to
fulfill the needs of the community.

They are the most beloved places on earth to Allah (a). It is not allowed to sing
in them, clap, use musical instruments, give a poetry recital of unlawful poetry,
allow mixing and mingling of males and females together, have sexual intercourse,
or buy and sell.

If someone buys or sells in the mosque, it is the Sunnah to say to this disobedient
person: “La rabaha Allah tijaratak’”’ (may Allah not give you any profit in your
trading). It 1s forbidden to publicly proclaim that one has lost something in the
mosque, and it is the Sunnah to say to the person who does so “La raddaha Allahu
alaik” (May Allah not return it to you).

It is allowed to teach children in the Mosque who do no harm therein, to contract
a marriage, to judge a case (as a court of law), to recite lawful poetry, to sleep for
the person in seclusion (/’tikaaf) and at other times, to have the guest sleep therein
and the sick person, and to take midday naps.

It is the Sunnah to keep the Mosques free of noise, clamor, quarrels, abundant
conversation or detested loud talk. They should also not be used as pathways to
other avenues except due to necessity. It 1s disliked that someone conducts any
unnecessary conversation in the Mosques about the life of this world.

The rugs, lights and electricity of the Mosques are not be used for weddings or

3. Alms-Giving—Zakat
Zakat is the compulsory giving of a set proportion of one's wealth to charity. It is regarded as a type of worship and of self-purification. Zakat is the third Pillar of Islam.
Zakat does not refer to charitable gifts given out of kindness or generosity, but to the systematic giving of 2.5% of one's wealth each year to benefit the poor.

Charity (Zakah) ‘
The categories of wealth upon which Zakah is obligatory are four :
1) freely grazing livestock; 2) produce; 3) moveable valuables (i.e. gold, silver, and
paper money etc); 4) trade items.
Zakah is obligatory if five conditions are met: 1) Islam; 2) freedom from slavery;
3)ownership of the ““Nisaab” (amount upon which Zakah becomes due); 4) complete and
stable ownership; 5) completion of a year, except in the case of produce.
The Zakah of freely grazing livestock is of three kinds: camels; cattle; goats and
sheep. The Zakah on them becomes obligatory on two conditions: 1) The animals are
free grazing for a year or more; 2) They are for kept milk and reproduction and not
tor work. If they are for sale or trading, they are then considered trade items.
More than 120 camels: for every 40, a two-year old she-camel is due; and for every
Less than 30 cows: there is no Zakah on them.
30-39 cows one. oneyearold calf’
40 ~ 59 cows: one, two-year old calf.
Zakah of Sheep and Goats:
Zakah on Land Produce: It is obligatory upon three conditions: 1) The produce
could be measured by amount and stored, like barley and wheat of grains and like
raisins and dates of fruits. But that which is not measured by amount and stored, like
fresh vegetables and legumes, have no Zakah; 2) It reaches the minimum amount
(Nisaab), which is 653 kilograms; 3) The person who will pay the Zakah has the
produce in his possession at the time when it is obligatory to pay Zakah, i.e., when
the signs of npeness show on the fruit and crops and they are ready for harvest.
The Zakah on Agricultural Products: # Products that are produced without
efforts of irrigation, thus being the product of rainwater or free flowing streams and
springs, have a Zakah rate of 10% (1/10 ‘"). # The Zakah on agricultural products
produced by effort and labor in irrigation is 5% (1/20th). # That which is partially
by effort and partially without, is according to the greater of the two; the counting
would be according to the number of the days that effort and labor is used.
The Zakah on Moveable Valuables: 1) Gold: Zakah is due on gold only when it
reaches 85 grams; 2) Silver: Zakah is due on silver only when it reaches 595 grams.

Zakah is due on money in any of its forms and currencies (e.g., bank notes)
when its value is equivalent to the amount of the gold or silver mentioned above.

Since the prices of gold and silver vary from time to time and from country to
country, Zakah should be based on whichever of the two works out better for the
poor. The Zakah on moveable valuables and money is one fortieth, 1/40 (2.5%).

Jewelry and ornaments that are for daily use have no Zakah on them. However,
what is used for trade and savings must have the Zakah paid on them. It is allowed
for women to wear what is customary of gold and silver jewelry. It is allowed to put
a small amount of silver on utensils, and it is also allowed for men to have a small
amount of silver in the likes of a ring and glasses.

Gold is prohibited to have on utensils and it is prohibited for men except a
minute amount in something that is used for some other purpose, like a button or a
gold tooth, without them resembling women.

If a person has wealth that fluctuates, increasing sometimes and decreasing at
others, then he should specify a day when he takes inventory and calculates his
wealth and pays the 1/40 " (2.5%) on that, even if a year has not passed.

Those who are salaried or who have fixed incomes from rental real estate
properties, for instance, have no Zakah due on them unless they save some of that
amount. They must pay the Zakah of the saved amount if a complete year passes
while the saved amount is in their possession. If it is difficult to calculate, They
simply choose a day to reckon their account as mentioned above.

Zakah on Debts: If a person loans some money to a rich person, or if the debtor
has sufficient funds and it is possible to get the money back from him, the Zakah for
that loan is to be calculated and paid when the money is recovered for each of the
years that lapsed, even if they are many.

But if the debt is with someone who is bankrupt, there is no Zakah due since the
person is not certain about its recovery and has no control over it.

There is no Zakah for trade items except with four conditions: 1) That the
payer of the Zakah owns them; 2) That he intends to trade with them; 3) That they
reach the minimal amount, which is like that of gold and silver (whichever is
lesser); 4) That a year has lapsed while these items are in his possession.

If these four conditions are fulfilled, he must pay the Zakah due from the value of
the inventory. If the items do not reach the minimal amount of Zakah and the
person is in possession of gold, silver or other money, he adds them to the value of
the trade items to reach the minimal amount. If one intends to use the trade items
for private use, like clothes, house and car, there is no Zakah due on them. If he
changes his intention (decides to use the items for trade again), he calculates the
year from the time he changes his intention.

Zakat-ul-Fitr: It is obligatory on every Muslim who has food that is surplus to his
needs and the needs of his family members on the last night of Ramadan and Eid
Day. Zakat-ul-Fitr is two and a quarter kilos of staple food of the country in which
it is being given. This amount is per person, male or female, and his dependants.

It is beloved to give it out on the Eid Day before the prayer of the Eid. It is not
allowed to delay it past the prayer of the Eid but one may give it out a day or two
before Eid. One may also give to one person an amount of food that is enough for a
group and vice versa.

It is obligatory to distribute the Zakah immediately as it becomes due and the
guardian is responsible to give Zakah on behalf of children and the insane.

It is Sunnah for the responsible person to distribute it personally and let it be known
to the people. Intention for the person on whose behalf the Zakah is given is necessary.

It is important to note that voluntary charity would not suffice for obligatory
Zakah, even if the person gave all his wealth away.

It is preferable to give the amount of Zakah to the poor of the country where the
person lives but in case of some overwhelming need, sending it to other countries 1s
also allowed. Giving Zakah two years in advance is proper and allowed, if the
wealth reaches the amount where Zakah becomes due.

People who deserve Zakah:

1) For the poor and utterly destitute; 2) For the poor who are needy; 3) For the officials
who collect and distribute it; 4) For those who need additional attraction to Islam,
whether Muslims or non-Muslims; 5) For the liberation of slaves and captives; 6) For
helping people who are burdened with legal debt; 77) For those who are struggling in the
way of Allah in Jihad; $Cool For the travelers who are cut off from their homeland.

They are to be given according to their need except for the officials who work to
collect and distribute the Zakah, since they are given according to a fair and agreed
upon salary, even if they are rich.

It fulfills the obligation to hand over the Zakah to the Khawarij (a group of Muslims
who dissented from the companions of the Prophet (#%) and Bughaat (those who
rebelled against a righteous Imam) and the likes if they take control and rule the land.

It fulfills the obligation if the ruler takes the Zakah by force or by one’s consent,
and whether he is a just or an unjust ruler.

It does not fulfill the obligation to give the Zakah to a non-believer (other than those
who need additional attraction to Islam), a slave, rich person, one’s dependents, or a
member of Bani Hashim (descendents of the Prophet (#%).

If after giving the Zakah to an undeserving person out of ignorance the person
comes to know about it, his obligation is not fulfilled except for the case that he gave
to someone thinking that the person was poor and later on found out that he was rich.
Voluntary Charity: The Messenger of Allah (s¢) said “Verily, what reaches a
believer of his good deeds after his death is: knowledge that he taught and
publicized; a pious son who supplicates for him; a book of Qur’anic script
(Mus’haf); a Mosque that he built; a rest house that he built for the travelers; a
water canal that he made; and any charity that he spent while healthy and alive;
all this will reach him after his death.” (Won Maajah).

4. Fasting during Ramadan—Saum
• In memory of the revelation of the Qur'an.
• During month of Ramadan, daylight hours.
• Those who have medical exemptions etc. should fast at another time.
• 'Id al-Fitr, Feast of Fast-breaking: at beginning of next month.

Fasting Ramadan (Saum)

Fasting: Fasting is obligatory upon every sane, post-pubescent Muslim, capable
of fasting the month of Ramadan - other than the women experiencing their
monthly menses or post-partum bleeding. Able children should be ordered to fast in
order to become accustomed to its practice.

The time of Ramadan’s commencement is known by one of two signs:

1) Sighting the new moon by a trustworthy Muslim, male or female;

2) Completing of thirty days of the month of Sha’ ban.

The time of the obligatory fast 1s from Fajr until Maghrib. The person have the
intention to fast before Fajr.

The Nullifiers of the Fast: The fast is nullified by the following : 1) Sexual
intercourse in the vagina. One must make up that day and expiate the sin of this act by
freeing a slave, and if he cannot do that, he must fast two consecutive months. If he is
not able to either of those, he must feed sixty poor people, and for those that cannot do
even this, nothing is due; 2) Ejaculation due to kissing, hugging or masturbation, etc.
There is nothing due for a person who has a wet dream; 3) Eating or drinking
something intentionally. If someone does so forgetting that he is fasting, the fast
remains correct (and he continues the fast till sunset); 4) Letting blood, by means such
as cupping or blood donation. A little amount for a medical examination and
unintentional bleeding, like a wound, does not nullify the fast; 5) Intentional vomiting;

Fasting is not nullified by the following: * Dust entering one’s throat; *
Water unintentionally comes to one’s throat while washing his mouth; #*
Ejaculation due to thinking about desire; # Wet dreams; #* Unintentional bleeding;
* Unintentional vomiting;

If someone eats thinking that it is night and then it becomes clear that it is the day,
he must make up for that day. If he eats doubting about the coming of the dawn,
thinking that it is still nighttime, his fast is still valid, but if he eats not certain about
the setting of the sun, and it happens to still be daytime, he must make up for that day.

Those Allowed not to Fast: # It is prohibited for a person to not fast unless he
has a legitimate excuse. * Women in their monthly menses and postpartum
bleeding must break the fast. # When saving someone’s life is conditional on
breaking a person’s fast, it is obligatory upon that person to break his fast. # It is
Sunnah for the traveler to break his fast if the journey is long enough to allow
shortened prayers and if fasting is difficult for him. * It is also Sunnah for a sick
person not to fast if he fears that fasting might cause him harm. * It is allowed to
break the fast for a resident who intends to travel in the day. # It is allowed for a
woman who is pregnant or nursing to break the fast if she fears any harm on the
child or herself. #* All types of people mentioned above must make up the days
missed. The pregnant or nursing woman should additionally feed a poor person for
every day missed if she breaks her fast because she fears harm for the child only. *
If a person breaks his fast because of aging or because of a chronic disease from
which it is not expected that he will recover, then he must feed a needy person for
every day of Ramadan, and he does not have to make up those days. #* Whoever
postpones making up the days he missed until the next Ramadan due to a legitimate
excuse, only needs to make them up. If his postponement was not for a legitimate
excuse, then he must make up the missed days in addition to feeding a needy person
for each day he did not make up. * If a person dies without making up some
missed days due to some genuine excuse, then there is no sin on him and no making
up is required. If there was no legitimate excuse, a needy person must be fed for
each day missed and it is desired that someone from his relatives fast in lieu of him
for what he neglected of the fast of Ramadan or the fast of a vow. All vows to Allah
that do not entail disobedience to Allah should be fulfilled. If a person does not
fast for a legitimate reason and then this reason lapses during the day of fast,
similarly if a non-muslim accepts Islam, a woman becomes clean from her menses,
a sick person 1s cured, a traveler returns from the journey, a child reaches puberty,
or the temporarily insane person regains his sanity, all of these people must make
up the fast of that day in the midst of which this happened, even if they fasted for
the remaining portion of that day. # No one may fast in lieu of another who is
excused from fasting Ramadan.

Voluntary Fasts: * The best voluntary fast is to fast every other day. # The
second best fast is to fast every Monday and Thursday. # The next in line is to fast
three days of every month, during the days of the full moon, the 13", 14 and 15™ [of
the Islamic lunar month]. * It is from the Sunnah to fast most of the month of
Muharram and Sha’ban. * It is also Sunnah to fast the day of Ashooraa (10" of
Muharram), the day of Arafat (9" of Dhul-Hijjah) and six days of Shawwaal. ¥* It is
disliked to single out the month of Rajab, Fridays, Saturdays, or the day of doubt (the
thirtieth day of Sha’ban) for fasting. #* It is prohibited to fast the day of Eid-al-Fitr or
Eid-al-Adha. It is also prohibited to fast the days of Tashreeg (11, 12" and 13" of
Dhul-Hijjah), except for the person who must compensate for not slaughtering in
making the Hajj-at-Tamattu’ or Qiran (see pilgrimage - Hajj).

Notes :

* It is allowed for the person in the state of major impurity, like a person who has
had sexual intercourse or a woman in menses or postpartum bleeding who becomes
clean before the crack of dawn, to postpone his bath until after dawn [yet before
sunrise]. He may also take his predawn meal before his bath. This does not harm his
fast. # It is allowed for a woman to take medicine to postpone her menses if she
intends by this to participate with the Muslims in the fast of Ramadan, on the
condition that this does not harm her in any way. * It is allowed for the fasting
person to swallow saliva and mucous if it is within his mouth. # The Prophet (25)
said, “My nation will remain on goodness as long as they hasten to break the fast
and take their pre-dawn meals at their latest time.” (Anmad). ** He (25) also said,
“The religion will continue to prevail as long as people hasten to break the fast,
because the Jews and Christians delay in doing so.” (Abu Dawud). * It is a loved act
that one makes a supplication when breaking his fast, since the Prophet (#24) said,
“The fasting person, at the time of his breaking the fast, has a supplication that will
not be rejected.” (Ibn Majah). One of the invocations reported is to say as the Prophet
(#2) said, “Dhahab ad-dhama’u wabtallit-il-uroog wa thabat-al-Ajru insha-Allah”’
(Abu Dawud). (the thirst has disappeared, and the veins are nourished, and the reward 1s
confirmed, by the will of Allah). # It is from the Sunnah to break fast with fresh
dates. If fresh dates are not available, then dry dates should be eaten. If neither of
those two is available, he should break his fast with water. # The fasting person
should avoid Kuhl (a kind of eye powder), eye drops and eardrops in order to avoid
the matters concerning which the scholars have differed. If a person is in medical
need of such drops, then there is no harm, even if he feels the drops in his throat. # It
is from the Sunnah to use the Siwak at all the times of the fast. There is no time in
which it is disliked according to the correct judgment of the scholars of
jurisprudence. * The fasting person must avoid all backbiting, hate-mongering,
falsehood, etc. If someone abuses the fasting person or curses him, he should say, “I
am fasting,” and guard his tongue and limbs from all that which is sinful concerning
his fast. The Prophet (#Smile said, “For he who does not leave off saying falsehood
and acting upon it, Allah has no need for him to leave his food and drink.” (al-
Bukhari and Ahmad) * It is from the Sunnah for a fasting person who is invited to a
meal to supplicate for the host and to partake in breakfast, even if he is not fasting.
* The Honored Night (Lailat-ul-Qadr) is the best night of the year. It falls in one of
the last ten nights of Ramadan. The most emphasized is the twenty-seventh night.
The performance of good deeds on this night is better than in a thousand months
(about 83 years). * This night has visible signs, of which are a whitish dawn
without much brightness of the Sun, and also mild weather. # A Muslim may pass
by it without knowing it. One should perform as much worship as possible in
Ramadan and especially in the last ten nights, seeking not to miss standing for
prayers in any of these nights. If he stands in prayer with the Imam for Salat-ut-
Taraweeh, he should not leave until the Imam completes the Taraweeh so that the
whole night of his is written for him. #It is Sunnah for the person who begins a
voluntary fast to complete it, but it is not obligatory. If he intentionally breaks his
fast, then there is no need to make that fast up as compensation.

Devotion (I’tikaaf):

I’ tikaaf means to remain in the Mosque (Masjid) in order to perform worship.

The condition is that he should not be in a state of major impurity and should not
go outside the Masjid except for that which is absolutely necessary, like eating,
going to the bathroom or making an obligatory Ghusl.

Itikaaf is void if one goes outside the Masjid without true need or if one has
sexual intercourse. /’tikaaf can be done any time of the year but it 1s recommended
in Ramadan, especially the last ten days.

The least amount for I’tikaaf is any set period of time, yet it is better that it lasts
for no less than a day and night. A woman should not perform I’tikaaf except with
the permission of her husband.

The Sunnah is to increase one’s worship of Allah and to avoid indulging in usual
permissible acts, avoiding all things that do not concern the person.

5. Pilgrimage to Mecca—Hajj
The pilgrimage to Mecca, is the fifth pillar of Islam and a religious duty that Muslims should undertake if they are able, at least once in their lives. It is both a collective undertaking and a deeply personal experience. Hajj occurs in the month of Dhu al-Hijja, the last month of the Islamic calendar. It involves a series of rituals that take place in and around Mecca over a period of five to six days. The first of these is tawaf in which pilgrims walk around the Ka‘ba seven times in an anti-clockwise direction. Muslims believe that the rituals of Hajj have their origin in the time of the prophet Ibrahim (Abraham). Muhammad led the Hajj himself in 632, the year of his death. The Hajj now attracts about three million pilgrims every year from across the world.

Greater Pilgrimage (Hajj) Nee
and Lesser Pilgrimage (Umrah) ’

Hajj and Umrah are obligatory once in a lifetime for anyone who is:

1) Muslim; 2) Sane; 3) pubescent; 4) Free, not a slave; 5) Has the means to perform
it with respect to being able to afford its provisions and conveyance.

If someone procrastinates in making Hajj until he dies while he had the wealth
and wherewithal to make it, someone should make the Hajj and Umrah on behalf of
the deceased from the deceased’s wealth.

Hajj of a non-muslim is not correct nor is the Hajj of an insane person. But a
child or a slave can make it, even though it does not count as their obligatory Hajj
for them. If a poor person borrows money to make Hajj, his Hajj is sound.

If a person makes Hajj on behalf of someone else while he himself has not yet
made his own Hajj, he will have that Hajj count as his own Hajj.

Ihram: It is Sunnah for the person who wishes to enter the state of Ihram to
take a bath, wear perfume, take off all stitched clothing and wear two clean white
unstitched pieces of cloth, one which covers the lower half of the body and the
other draped over the shoulders.

One who intends only Umrah should proclaim, ‘“‘Labbaik Allahumma Umratan’’
(Here I am at your service for obedience O Allah for Umrah),

Those that intend Hajj should say the same but substitute “‘Hajjan’”’ for
“Umratan’’, and those that intend both should say, *‘Hajjan wa Umrah’’.

If he fears that something will prevent him from completing his Hajj rites, he
should make a condition in this proclamation by saying: ‘“‘fa inn habasani haabis fa
mahalli haithu habastanv’’ (If | am prevented by any obstacle, my place of ending
is wherever I am obstructed).

Types of Hajj:

The person who intends Hajj has three choices: Tamattu’, Ifraad or Qiran.

1) The best 1s to make Tamattu’ wherein one enters the state of Jhram for the Umrah
in the months of Hajj (Shawwaal, Dhul-Qa’dah and Dhul-Hijjah) and then leaves the
state of [hram. He then enters the state of Jhram again for Hajj (in the same year), and
completes its rites. 2) [fraad is to make [hram for Hajj alone. 3) Qiran is to combine
both Hajj and Umrah in one [hram, or to enter into [hram for the Umrah first and
then to add Hajj to it before one begins the circumambulation of the Umrah.

Once the one intending Hajj is on his conveyance for travel [after entering the
state of Ihram], he should say: “‘Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaika la-
Sharika laka labbatk. Innal-Hamda wan-ni’mata laka wal-Mulk. La Shartka lak”
(Here Iam at Your service, O Allah! Here I am at Your service. Here I am at Your
service, You have no partner, Here I am at Your service, O Allah. Verily, all the
praise, all the grace belongs to You, and the dominion. You have no partner). This
is called the Talbiyah.

It is more rewarding that one repeats this frequently with a raised voice.
However, women should not raise their voices in the Talbiyah.

There are nine things that are prohibited while in the state of Ihram:

1) Cutting the hair; 2) Clipping the nails; 3) For the male, wearing stitched clothes.
One who does not find an unstitched garment to wear is excepted from this. In such
a case he may wear pants. Also, if he does not find sandals, he then can wear Khuff
(leather socks) after cutting off what might cover the ankles. He need not offer any
compensation for this; 4) Covering the head; 5) Wearing perfume on the body or
clothes; 6) Hunting wild game ordinarily allowed; 7) Contracting a marriage; this is
impermissible, but there is no compensation due if done. Cool Touching the wife as
foreplay to sexual activity; if one does this, he must compensate by slaughtering a
sheep, fasting for three days, or feeding six needy people. 9) Having sexual
intercourse; if this happens while one is in the state of lhram, the Hajj is
invalidated. He must complete his Hajj and perform it again the following year,
along with slaughtering a camel and distributing the meat to the needy of Makkah.
If one does this after leaving the state of Jhram and completing the first section of
the Hajj rites, his Hajj is not invalid but he must compensate that sin by
slaughtering a cam
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