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Dark Matter?

 
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Dark Matter?
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raja_bilal20
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Joined: 11 Oct 2007
Posts: 42
Location: Pakistan

Dark Matter?
Every time the big bang hypothesis runs into trouble, instead of
abandoning it, its supporters just move the goal posts, introducing new and ever
more arbitrary assumptions in order to shore it up. For example, the theory
requires a certain amount of matter in the universe. If the universe was created 15
billion years ago, as the model predicts, there has simply not been enough time
for the matter we observe to have congealed into galaxies like the Milky Way,
without the help of invisible “dark matter.” According to the big bang cosmologists,
in order for galaxies to have been formed from the big bang, there must
have been sufficient matter in the universe to bring about an eventual halt to its
expansion through the law of gravitation. This would mean a density of approximately
ten atoms per cubic meter of space. In reality, the amount of matter
present in the observable universe is about one atom per ten cubic meters — a
hundred times less than the amount predicted by the theory.
The cosmologists decided to represent the density of the universe as a ratio
of the density needed to bring the expansion to a halt. They call this ratio omega.
Thus, if omega equals 1, it would just be sufficient to halt the expansion.
Unfortunately, the actual ratio was observed to be around .01 or .02. Approximately
99% of the required matter had somehow “gone missing.” How to solve
the conundrum? Very simply. Since the theory demanded that the matter be
there, they arbitrarily fixed the value of omega at close to 1, and then began a
frantic search for the missing matter! The first problem facing the big bang was
the origin of the galaxies. How did the extremely smooth background radiation
produce such a “lumpy” irregular universe? The so-called “ripples” (anisotropies)
in the radiation were supposed to have been a reflection of the formation of the
clumps of matter around which the early galaxies coalesced. But the irregularities
observed were too small to have been responsible for the formation of
galaxies, unless there was a lot more matter, and therefore gravity, present than
seems to be the case. To be exact, there needed to be 99% more matter, which
just wasn’t there.
This is where the notion of “cold dark matter” comes in. It is important to
realize that no-one has ever seen this stuff. Its existence was put forward just
over ten years ago, in order to fill up an embarrassing hole in the theory. Since
only 1 or 2% of the universe can actually be seen, the remaining 99% or so was
alleged to consist of invisible matter, which is dark and cold, emitting no
radiation at all. Such strange particles, after a decade of searching for them,
remain unobserved. But they nevertheless occupy a central place in the theory,
simply because it demands that they should exist.
Fortunately, it is possible to work out quite accurately the amount of
matter in the observable universe. It is about one atom for every ten cubic meter
of space. This is a hundred times less than the amount required by the big bang
theory. But, as the journalists like to say, don’t let the facts spoil a good story! If
there is not enough matter in the universe to square with the theory, then there
must be an awful lot of matter there which we can’t see. As Brent Tully put it,
“It’s disturbing to see that there is a new theory every time there’s a new
observation.”
At this stage, the defenders of the big bang decided to call on the aid of the
Seventh Cavalry, in the person of particle physicists. The mission they were
called upon to carry out puts all the exploits of John Wayne completely in the
shade. The most he ever had to do was to find some unfortunate women and
children carried off by the Indians. But when the cosmologists called in their
colleagues who were busy investigating the mysteries of “inner space,” their
request was a trifle more ambitious. They wanted them to find the 99% or so of
the universe which had inconsiderately “gone missing.” Unless they could find
this missing matter, their equations would just not add up, and the standard
theory of the origin of the universe would be in trouble!
In his book The Big Bang Never Happened Eric Lerner details a whole series of
observations, the results of which have been published in scientific journals,
which completely refute the idea of dark matter. Yet, in the teeth of all the
evidence, the advocates of the big bang continue to behave like the learned
professor who refused to look through the telescope to test the correctness of
Galileo’s theories. Dark matter must exist — because our theory demands it!
The test of scientific theory [writes Lerner], is the correspondence of predictions
and observation, and the big bang has flunked. It predicts that there should be no
objects in the universe older than twenty billion years and larger than 150 million
light-years across. There are. It predicts that the universe, on such a large scale,
should be smooth and homogeneous. The universe isn’t. The theory predicts that, to
produce the galaxies we see around us from the tiny fluctuations evident in the
microwave background, there must be a hundred times as much dark matter as
visible matter. There’s no evidence that there’s any dark matter at all. And if there is
no dark matter, the theory predicts, no galaxies will form. Yet there they are, scattered
across the sky. We live in one. 57
Alan Guth succeeded in removing some of the objections to the big bang,
but only by advancing the most fantastic and arbitrary version of the theory yet
seen. It did not say what the “dark matter” was, but merely provided the cosmologists
with a theoretical justification for it. The real significance was that it
established the link between cosmology and particle physics which has lasted
ever since. The problem is that the general tendency of theoretical physics, as in
cosmology, has been to resort increasingly to a priori mathematical assumptions
to justify their theories, making very few predictions that can be tested in
practice. The resulting theories have an ever more arbitrary and fantastic
character, and frequently seem to have more in common with science fiction
than anything else.
In point of fact, the particle physicists who rushed to the aid of cosmology
had plenty of problems of their own. Alan Guth and others were trying to
discover a Grand Universal Theory (GUT), which would unify the three basic
forces which operate on the small scale in nature — electromagnetism, the weak
force (which causes radioactive decay), and the strong force (which holds the
nucleus together, and is responsible for the release of nuclear energy). They
hoped to repeat the success of Maxwell, a hundred years earlier, who had proved
that electricity and magnetism were one and the same force. The particle
physicists were only too willing to enter an alliance with the cosmologists, in the
hope of finding the answer in the heavens for the difficulties they had found
themselves in. In reality, their whole approach was similar. With scarcely any
reference to observation, they based themselves on a series of mathematical
models, and completely arbitrary assumptions, which were often little more
than mere speculation. Theories have emerged thick and fast, each more
incredible than the last. “Inflation” theory is mixed up with all this.

From the REASON IN REVOLT Vol. 1 By Alan Woods & Ted Grant
Fri Dec 26, 2008 5:32 pm View user's profile Send private message
MaoBilli
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Joined: 08 Dec 2008
Posts: 14886

Reply with quote
hmmm,,,,, bohat lamba ho gea, sara nahi parha. Sad
dreamzZ wali bimari mujhe bhi hoti ja rahi hey, kher,,,keep it upp Razz next time summery plz

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Fri Dec 26, 2008 6:14 pm View user's profile Send private message
Bin-Momin
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Joined: 19 Jul 2007
Posts: 32001
Location: K2

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very good g nice info... Embarassed

kayi aik theories aisi hein par wo kiya hena appun ne ooper se jab tak nahi dhaiki yaqeen nahi ayega Embarassed Laughing


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" Aashiqi se milega a Zahid !!!

Bandgi se Khuda nahi milta ... !!! "
Tue Dec 30, 2008 5:44 pm View user's profile Send private message
amber ali
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Joined: 04 Mar 2008
Posts: 4285
Location: LONDON

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hmmmmm.....
Mon Jan 05, 2009 4:59 pm View user's profile Send private message
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